1) Name of Project: Autonomy and Alterity. Kant in Dialogue
Project No: 19-17708S
doc. Jakub Sirovátka Dr. phil.
The field of research is constituted by the tension between the idea of autonomy on the one hand and the relationship to alterity, which is not at disposal of autonomous subject, on the other. The examination is related to the ethical theory of I. Kant. This represents basis for dialogical examination of the tension between autonomy and alterity in the works of selected thinkers of European philosophical tradition, those for whom the idea of autonomy plays a vital role. The research is inspired by the following question: Is it necessary to give up on the idea of autonomy in order to give way to appropriate relation to alterity, or, on the contrary, does this idea need new reconsideration and purification from misinterpretations? In this respect the very origin of the idea of autonomy in selected works of Kant’s predecessors and Kant himself is carefully examined; next part of research focuses on the tension between autonomy and alterity in works of F. Nietzsche, M. Heidegger, M. M.-Ponty, J.-P. Sartre, E. Levinas in dialogue with Kant’s theory.
To what extent does the idea of autonomy contradict an appropriate relation to alterity and what features does it need to take in order to enable and deepen this relation? Justification of complexity of Kantian notion of autonomy in dialogical interaction with selected European thinkers.
2) Name of Project: Cognitive Theory in Baroque Scotism
Project No: 20-01710S
doc.Mgr. Daniel Heider Ph.D.
The project provides fresh new insight into debates over sensory and intellectual cognition in Baroque Scotism. Scotism is founded on the philosophical and theological teachings of the medieval Franciscan John Duns Scotus. Scholarship is increasingly becoming aware of thevitality of this school in the post-medieval period. And yet only little is known about 17th-century Scotist teachings on key issues of philosophy. The project aims at their cognitive theory. How did the Scotists discuss such issues as perceptual delusion, self-awareness, intentionality, or the genesis of intellection? How did they react to positions held in competing scholastic traditions? And how did they apply their philosophical psychology when they discussed the beatific vision in their theological works? The two crucial Scotist philosophers Mastri and Belluto were extremely well versed in both their own Scotist tradition and in scholastic debates outside of Scotism. The discussions of cognitive issues in their Cursus philosophicus will be used as a window on the 17th-century scholastic discourse on cognition.
The project systematically explores the discussions in cognitive theory among Scotist authors of the 17th century. It contributes to the thriving scholarship on the continuity of scholastic philosophy beyond the Middle Ages and, with its focus on Scotism, breaks a new path in this field of research.
3) Name of Project: Being and Natural Theology in Scotism
Project No: 21-35651S
Mgr. Lukáš Novák Ph.D.
For (mature) Duns Scotus, the key presupposition of natural knowledge of God is the univocity of the concept of being. Scotus scholars, however, have lately pointed out that Scotus does not seem to entirely banish analogy: some scholars claim he keeps it as a metaphysical (as opposed to logico-semantical) phenomenon, and some even say that he retains analogy (qua compatible with univocity) on the level of concepts. At the same time, there is a problem in Scotus's understanding of the univocity of being: he claims that God and creatures are "primo diversa" in reality, whence the abstraction of being cannot rely on a "distinctio a parte rei", otherwise a sine qua non of abstraction according to Scotus. All this suggest quite a special logico-semantical status of the concept of being. Contemporary scholars as well as members of the Scotist school of thought have proposed various interpretations of this status. This project aims at a synthetic survey of the problem and of the role of the concept of being in the knowledge of God, from both historical and systematic perspective.
(A) 3 papers on topics such as:
- Scotus's arguments for formal distinction vs. the status of the concept of being;
- evaluation of interpretations of Scotus's notion of analogy;
- status of the concept of being in Scotism;
- natural theology in Scotism;
(B) Czech commentary to "De primo principio"
1) Name of Project: Ethics of autonomous vehicles
Project No: TL01000467
PhDr. Daniel Novotný Ph.D.
Our project will have three key results: (1) Innovation of empirical methods: Modelling of social dilemmas involving the collisions of autonomous vehicles, and visualization for an online survey. (2) The very first research into moral intuitions concerning the autonomous vehicles‘ driving software and a research into customers‘ preferences. We shall detect the moral intuitions of Czech drivers and offer solutions for harmonizing new driving programs with social ethical norms. (3) Further applications: Proposals for implementing the conduct of robotic agents in the moments of crisis. These proposals will help not merely in developing driving software and legislation, but also in situations with additional degrees of freedom—e.g., designing a general AI which is required to act morally.
2) Name of Project: Professional training of prison chaplains in the context of prison
Project No: TL02000390
doc. Michal Opatrný Dr. theol.
The main aim of the project is to make a contribution to the innovation of professional preparation of to-be chaplains who work in the Czech prisons. This aim will be achieved by the preparation and implementation of vocational course for university students. A partial aim is to create an outline and a content of the course that will help the chaplains with training for their work in the Czech prisons. Especially, the course will reflect specifics of the prison world with an emphasis on a role and importance of a spiritual care and prison chaplains' work in the Czech prisons. As far as we know, no similar course is taught at Czech universities. The realization of this project will lead to the development of the fields such as theology, penitentiary sociology and sociology of religion.
3) Name of Project: Experiencing Leisure of Older School Age Children as an Educational Challenge
Project No: TL02000387
doc. Mgr. Michal Kaplánek Th.D.
The aim of the project is by using multidisplinary approach based on pedagogical and sociological research to define pedagogical challenges, related strategies and specific educational programmes that will lead to an increase of “leisure competence” of older school age children, i.e. their ability to evaluate their use of (leisure) time more critically, to opt for quality experiencing of leisure, and thus increase resilience towards socially pathological forms of leisure.
4) Name of Project: Virtual Reality in Keeping the Elderly Active
Project No: TL02000344
Mgr. Věra Suchomelová, Th.D.
The aim of the project is to create a software – a set of virtual reality experiences respecting the needs and specifics of seniors in geriatric facilities, and certified methodology for geriatric staff and home care (01. 2021). In virtual reality, the viewer becomes a part of the story and can influence the story. Such activation can lead to well-being and joy in the game. This also promotes awareness of the dignity and self-value, development or preservation of cognitive functions and helps satiate many of the psycho-spiritual needs. The certified methodology will helpfully exploit the potential that new form of activation, with overlap in subsequent individual or group, work with seniors. The partial results of the project will be presented annually to the professional and lay public.
5) Name of Project: Human spirituality in the context of helping professions
Project No: TL02000147
prof. Tomáš Machula, Ph.D., Th.D.
The goal of the project is to improve quality of life for both the ill terminally patients and the caregivers. Terminally ill patients seek meaning of their lives and ask the questions which refer about their self-transcendence. Caregivers often fail to respond to these needs, so they either left the questions unanswered or transfer the problem to other profession (f.e. clergy). Present knowledge in this area (so far limited) shows that saturation of the patient's spiritual needs leads to an increase in quality of life - patient accepts his illness, become reconciled to his life, is able to forgive. The project aims to make from these exceptional situations a common practice, so that quality of life of the most terminally ill patients improve. The project will finish at the end of 2021.
6) Name of Project: Postgraduate Education of Social Workers for the Field of Spirituality in Social Work in Social Services for Elderly
Project No: TL03000376
doc. Michal Opatrný Dr. theol.
On the basis of a survey of spirituality and religiosity in selected groups of social work clients (elderly), the research project aims to create a concept of postgraduate education for social workers in the field of spirituality in social work in the Czech Republic, and to evaluate this concept in interaction with practitioners for whom the courses will be designed.